In order to prevent problems caused by heavy metals in wastewaters poly(acrylic acid) enhanced ultrafiltration was applied and the efficiency of this process was studied. The application of polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration using the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), permitted to reach retention rate higher than 93% for copper. Several parameters have been optimized such as: transmembrane pressure, PAA concentration and pH to improve the retention of the metal ions. The application of polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) on wastewater treatment from Tunisian industrial in Grombalia (industry of Tunisian cable) proved the efficiency of the retention of various physico-chemical parameters in water treatment. The ultrafiltration effluent treatment (TRB1) was investigated using two different membranes: polyethersulfone membrane with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO 10 kD) and regenerated cellulose (MWCO 10 kD). Two anionic polyelectrolytes were used: poly(ammonium acrylate) (PANH4+ 15 000 Da) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA 100 000 Da). The physico-chemical parameters of ultrafiltrated effluent in absence of polyelectrolyte don’t obey to the Tunisian norm NT 106-02. This wastewater effluent presents higher rates of chloride as well as cadmium ions beyond norm limits. The permeate quality after PEUF application showed a reduction in turbidity, COD, major cations, heavy metals. This study can be used as a pretreatment for wastewaters containing heavy metals.
D. Jellouli Ennigrou, S. Ben Mlouka, M. Dhahbi
Ultrafiltration, Polyelectrolyte, Industrial wastewater, Copper, Heavy metals retention
Copper modified MCM-41 silica and AlMCM-41 materials obtained by various preparation techniques: direct synthesis, impregnation (ROT), cation exchange (IE) and template ionic exchange (TIE). Two fundamental characteristics of the materials prepared have been considered: (i) structure and texture, (ii) copper content and state. The results shows that the TIE method allow to obtain the best ordered materials with higher contain of copper.
H. Sekkiou, R. Hamacha, T. Alidahmane, A. Morsli, A. Bengueddach
copper, MCM-41, Al-MCM-41, impregnation, exchange
LiFePO4 compound was prepared by a modified protocol of solid state reaction method. Analysis of the structure and morphology of the synthesized material shows that the used protocol of synthesis can lead to the formation of a product with a relatively good purity and an average particle size of about 200 nm. The reduction of the particle size of LiFePO4 by the modified protocol leads to much better electrochemical performances than those of LiFePO4 prepared by classical protocol of solid state reaction. The use of this modified protocol may provide an easy way for industrial production of LiFePO4 cathode material in the lithium ion batteries.
G. Ben Amor, N. Amdouni, H. Boughzala, J.M. Greneche
Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4, Solid-state reaction, X-ray diffraction
The title compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1. The parameters of the unit cell are: a = 10.092(7) Å, b = 10.956(4) Å, c = 12.000(5) Å, α = 84.19(3)°, β = 66.97(5)°, γ = 80.80(5)°, Z = 2 and Dx = 1.19 . The molecular structure shows a benzyl group and two ramified carbon atoms linked to a tertiary nitrogen atom. One ramified carbon has an ethyl group and an ethyl carboxylate group. The other carbon has also a carboxylate group and a carbon linked to a phenyl and a chlore.
F. Ben Amor, B. Ould Elemine, R. Besbes, A. Driss
molecular structure, tertiary nitrogen, ethyl carboxylate, chlore